Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease caused by the absolute or relative lack of an insulin hormone in which hyperglycemia develops.
The disease is chronic and characterized by a violation of not only carbohydrate, but also fat, protein, mineral and water-electrolyte exchanges.
Causes of development of diabetes mellitus
It is now proven that diabetes develops as a result of genetic predisposition. Detection of a number of genetic variations, which are much more common in diabetics, made it possible to establish the hereditary nature of the disease.
Some studies show that type 1 diabetes is inherited with a 3-7% probability from the father and with a 8-10% probability on the part of the mother. If both parents are ill with type 1 diabetes, the risk of transmission to their children rises to 70%.
As for type 2 diabetes, it is inherited with almost 80% probability from both the mother and the father. If both parents are ill with type 2 diabetes, the probability of developing it in children is close to 100%, although the disease is most often realized in adulthood.
Factors affecting the development of diabetes:
With obesity, the body develops tolerance to glucose, which worsens its penetration into muscle cells. So glucose accumulates in the blood, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity refers to those factors that a person can change. Proper nutrition and exercise will change the situation for the better. Some diseases in which there is damage to beta cells of the pancreas. Such diseases include pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diseases of other endocrine glands. One of the provoking factors in this case may be injury.
Some viral infections (for example, rubella, influenza, chickenpox, hepatitis, and others) can become a serious provoking factor, especially for people who are predisposed to diabetes and obese.
Nervous stress is a serious factor for people with hereditary predisposition.
Naturally, the older the person, the higher the likelihood of becoming ill with type 2 diabetes. As for type 1 diabetes, it is usually realized at a teenage and young age.
Acceptance of certain medications (eg, thiazide diuretics and steroid hormones).
Types of diabetes mellitus
There are types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.
The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is the insufficiency of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 develops due to a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin (insulin resistance).
Gestational diabetes mellitus, which occurs during pregnancy, and MODY-diabetes, which represents a group of autosomal dominant diseases, characterized by a worsening of the secretory activity of beta cells of the pancreas, are also distinguished.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are different depending on its type.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus
As a rule, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes grow rapidly. Characteristic manifestations of the disease develop within a few days. In a number of cases, the patient suddenly falls into a diabetic coma. In this case, the patient should be immediately sent to the hospital. Symptoms of diabetes also include increased thirst, odor of acetone in the exhaled air, frequent urination, poor healing of the wounds, skin itching and others.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus
For a long time, type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs without obvious symptoms. This is the so-called prediabetes state, when the patient still has chances to avoid the development of pathology.One of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes is increased fatigue, but few people pay attention to it, all writing off for overwork, weather and other life circumstances. Over time, the patient's eyesight deteriorates, there are memory problems. Because of the high content of glucose in the blood, a person develops a tendency to develop infectious diseases (especially fungal ones). Women often develop a thrush against diabetes mellitus. Patients are noted increased thirst (they consume up to 3-5 liters of fluid per day). In severe cases, ulcers appear due to a trophic disorder in the tissues.
If you find at least one of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and go through all the relevant studies. If a patient is diagnosed with diabetes, it is necessary for the patient to follow all the doctor's recommendations regarding the intake of medicines and dietary restrictions. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed with the following laboratory tests: fasting glucose; conducting a glucose tolerance test; determination of glycosylated hemoglobin; urine analysis for sugar content; urine analysis for the content of acetone (acetone may be present in urine and in other disorders).
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
The main goal of the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a decrease in the level of glucose in the blood. With type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are necessary.
In diabetes mellitus type II, usually prescribed hypoglycemic drugs and diet, which is calculated taking into account the patient's body weight, sex and physical exertion.
Popular medications for diabetes:
AMARYL 30X3MG METFOGAMMA 120X850MG
EUCREAS 50MG/1000MG 60 Шт NOVORAPID 100U/ML INJ SOL 1X10ML
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Glucophage 1000мг х 120 таб SYNJARDY 5 Mg/1.000 Mg 180 (2х90 шт.)
GLUCOPHAGE 5X10X500MG THIOCTACID 600 HR Filmtabletten 30 шт
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MANINIL 5 120 Шт. ZOPITIN ratiopharm 7,5 mg 100 шт
Prevention of diabetes mellitus
Prevention of diabetes mellitus is to avoid the negative factors that contribute to the development of the disease with the existing genetic predisposition.
This is especially true of obesity. Timely weight correction significantly reduces the likelihood of developing diabetes.
Nutrition for diabetes mellitus
The human diet for diabetes mellitus is obligatory to consist of the following products:
1. Low-fat dairy products: milk, kefir, cottage cheese.
2. Vegetables: aubergines, peas, zucchini, white cabbage and cauliflower, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, bell pepper, root parsley, tomatoes, rhubarb, radish, turnips, lettuce, beets, celery, soybeans, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, pumpkin, beans , garlic, spinach.
3. Fruits and berries: quince, barberry, cranberries, cherries, pears, strawberries, strawberries, cranberries, gooseberries, raspberries, mountain ash, all kinds of currants, apples.
4. Meat and poultry: chicken, rabbit, veal, lamb, low-fat pork.
5. Low-fat sea fish.
6. Bread: rye and bran (the amount of bread - no more than 150 grams per day).
7. Cereals: buckwheat and oatmeal (50-60 g per day).
8. Fats: cream and vegetable oil (50-70 g, depending on body weight).
9. Products made from soy.
Nutrition for diabetics: to maintain health and not to lose taste for life
For every diabetic, hourly care for a nutritional diet is a matter of life and death, in which a balanced diet plays a major therapeutic role. But the negligent attitude towards nutrition in diabetes, on the contrary, negates the use of any, even the most progressive and ultra-modern medical preparations.
In nutrition for diabetics, the greatest care should be exercised for sugar and sugar-containing sweets. Doctors advise diabetics to replace as much as possible refined sugar with caramelized, with the addition of anise, mint or cinnamon. And tasty, and useful! After all, this sugar is more slowly absorbed into the blood, which means it is less dangerous
Nutrition for diabetics: what is important to know? Adequate, proper nutrition for diabetics (which physicians often call diet 9) is of great importance. Recall: diabetes is an endocrine disease, which is based on an inadequate production of the hormone insulin, which causes the blood glucose to increase sharply (hyperglycemia), which in turn leads to a sharp disruption of metabolism. Therefore, maintaining in the relative rate of metabolic processes in the body - this is the main task of nutrition in diabetes mellitus.
Nutrition for diabetics: we exclude bad carbohydrates Modern dietology has come to the conclusion that the greatest danger for diabetics is represented by products with the so-called high glycemic index (GI). In fact, the glycemic index of foods is the ability of food to raise blood sugar levels. Accordingly, products with high GI should first of all be excluded from the diet of those who suffer from diabetes. Recognize the high GI in foods is easiest by the large content of carbohydrates in them, which in the process of metabolism are converted into glucose (the same notorious sugar in the blood). However, completely ignoring carbohydrates would be great human stupidity, since glucose is a scourge for insulin-dependent people only in the second place, and firstly - the main source of energy for the body of any person, not just diabetics. Therefore, the strategy of diabetics on the glycemic principle is: choose products with low GI (less than 50 units), but not with zero. Glycemic index of glucose itself is taken as the standard - 100 units - relative to which the scale of all other products is built. One of the pitfalls here is that many products in the process of industrial processing increase their glycemic index. For example, brown rice (which is very welcome) has an index of 50, and refined - already 75, boiled potatoes - 65, and instant mashed potatoes - 90. And if for a diabetic who is used to eating half-finished products and fast food is a tragedy for a gourmet who loves to cook on his own is more of an additional stimulus for culinary experiments and a guarantee that no random carbohydrates will be added to his dishes. Semi-finished products have absolutely nothing to do in the kitchen of a diabetic. To products with a high glycemic index are: malt (110), alcohol (from 85), corn flakes (85), chocolate (70), bananas (60), beets (65), pasta (55) varieties (95) and others. All this is subject to exclusion from diabetic nutrition. But it is much more important and interesting for those who have diabetes and just those who care about their health, to know products with a low glycemic index. Among them: bread from coarse flour (50), beans (40), milk and dairy products (from 35), lentils (30), soy (15), lean meat and fish (less than 20), as well as green vegetables, tomatoes, aubergines, pumpkin, nuts, mushrooms, unsweetened fruit (less than 15).
Small cunnings in diabetic nutrition Many people mistakenly believe that the glycemic index is a constant value. This is not the case, and there are several ways for diabetics to deceive and downgrade GI. The more in the fiber, the lower the total glycemic index becomes. In other words, just pasta is much worse than pasta with vegetables. Even better, if vegetables are added to the dish as raw as possible, as GI increases during cooking. For example, the glycemic index of raw carrots is 35, and the cooked index is already 85. Carbohydrates in the presence of protein reduce the glycemic index of the dish. First of all, due to the fact that proteins slow down the absorption of sugars into the blood. It is important not to forget about the combination of proteins and fats. For example: mashed potatoes with skim milk are perfectly combined, but boiled potatoes with fried pork are poorly combined, although there is protein in the meat. Such nuances must be taken into account. No wonder fighters for a healthy lifestyle insist that the food must be chewed a hundred times. In a diet for diabetics, this thesis is more than justified: the longer the food remains in the mouth, the slower the digestion of carbohydrates, the less sugar gets into the blood. And for dessert - about sweet. It would be wrong and inhuman to say that desserts in any form are an absolute taboo in diabetes mellitus. Sweetheads should remember: desserts should not be bought in a store or ordered in a restaurant. It is much more correct to cook them yourself, trying to use products with a low glycemic index: skim milk, rye flour, unsweetened fresh fruit, or canned without sugar. Instead of a fat cream - light yogurt. For comparison: shop biscuit has a total GI of about 75. And cooked at home, already at least 30 units less. A little at first glance, but it's enough to pretty much sweeten life!
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