Dermatology (Greek derma - skin, logos - teaching, literally "the doctrine of the skin") is a medical discipline, the objects of study of which are the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands), mucous membranes, their structure and functioning, as well as diseases and diagnostics, prevention and treatment. Inside dermatology as a medical science, there are special clinical sections that study individual diseases and their treatment (mycology, trichology). Dermatology is closely connected with venereology, cosmetology, allergology and other medical disciplines.
Skin is part of the whole body structure and is the largest human organ visible to the eye. It, as an indicator, reflects the state of all organs and systems of the body, protects them from mechanical damage and infection. As a rule, skin diseases indicate any violation of the functions of internal organs, unhealthy habits and lifestyle of the patient. Diseases of the skin, in turn, can lead to serious consequences for the body as a whole, if not timely start their treatment.
Features of the structure of the skin, the variety of its functions and the impact of a large number of internal and external factors, cause a variety of skin diseases, or dermatoses.
Factors affecting the skin
The impact of external, or exogenous, factors is very diverse. Physical and chemical agents cause inflammatory skin diseases - dermatitis (burns, scrapes, diaper rash, etc.). Biological factors lead to fungal skin lesions - mycoses (epidermophytia, microsporia), pustular diseases - pyoderma (impetigo, furunculosis, hydradenitis), parasitic infestations (pediculosis, scabies), viral skin lesions (herpes, warts).
An important role in the development of skin diseases is played by internal or endogenous factors: internal diseases, chronic foci of infection, metabolic disorders, hypovitaminosis, and disorders of the nervous system. All these factors can cause various pathological processes in the skin and its appendages, mucous membranes: inflammation, hemorrhages, changes in pigmentation and even the death of individual skin structures (hair follicles, connective tissue fibers, etc.).
At the appearance of the first signs of skin diseases (such as itching, burning, soreness, skin discoloration and skin rash, skin rashes), you should consult a dermatologist. An experienced physician can, at the first careful examination of the skin and careful collection of anamnesis of the patient's life, make a correct diagnosis. To clarify or confirm the diagnosis in dermatology, additional methods of examining the skin, mucous membranes, hair, nails are widely used: instrumental, laboratory, radiological, special skin tests, etc.
Types of skin diseases
Eczema is another type of dermatitis. It looks like a dry red rash that can appear on any part of the body.
Urticaria is an allergic reaction to anything that you ate (food or medicine) or anything touched. With urticaria there are small pink pimples that are strongly itchy. Most often it spreads throughout the body.
Disease or infection. Viral infections, measles and chicken pox can cause a red rash on the skin all over the body. When chicken pox, a person is covered with small blisters, which must immediately be treated with greenery. Corsa is accompanied by flat red spots that flare up throughout the body, as well as chicken pox. Fungal infections, such as pruritus and ringworm, can also cause skin rashes. Rashes can also cause urinary infections.
Follicular keratosis. It is determined by itching tiny tubercles that give the skin an invoice of sandpaper. Cones can be red flesh-colored, and, more often than not, they appear on the hips and upper arms.
Acne. These are excess fat and clogged sebaceous glands in the skin. These bumps are often red or flesh colored.They can also be white in the case of pus filling. These pimples can occur on the face, shoulders, chest or back.
Skin allergy. Many skin allergies can lead to uneven skin, including contact dermatitis, eczema and hives. These irregularities can appear on any part of the body.
Psoriasis. This is an inflammatory condition of the skin, which results in discoloration of the skin on any part of the body. These lesions can be red, silver, white, or pink. In psoriasis, there are thickened areas of skin that are covered with scales.
Vitiligo. With this disease, the cells stop producing a specific pigment that is responsible for the color of the skin. As a consequence, white spots can appear on any part of the body, but, most often, they are noticed first of all on the face, arms or legs.
Melasma. In this disease, the affected areas of the skin become darker, usually brown, which spreads throughout the face, usually on both sides along a single pattern. Melanoderma usually affects pregnant women or women taking medications that contain hormones, particularly contraceptives or other hormonal drugs.
Lentigo. These are small, flat, dark zones of irregular shape, appearing mainly on the face and arms, chest, shoulders. They appear on the skin due to exposure to sunlight.
Treatment of skin diseases
Treatment of skin diseases requires patient patience and strict adherence to the treatment algorithm. An important role in successful treatment is played by hygienic care for the affected skin, compliance with the diet and the regime of drug therapy.
Medical treatment of skin diseases can be general and local. In dermatological practice, physiotherapeutic and hardware procedures, psychotherapy, sanatorium treatment, phytotherapy, homeopathy are widely used.
Popular medications for solving skin problems:
ACNE ATTACK 40 гр DERMOVATE 1X25GM IRUXOL MONO 1X10GM
Akneroxid 10 gel 1x50gm 5% DIFFERINE gel 1MG/G GEL 30G LOCERYL CREME 20 Гр
ALOPEXY 5% DIPROSALIC 30 ml. LOCERYL NAGELLACK 2,5 Мл
Benzaknen 10 % Gel 2X50 гр EBENOL SPRAY 0.5% LOESUNG 30 мл Mirfulan Salbe 20 гр.
BRAUNOVIDON MAST 1X250GM EPI PEVARYL CREME 30 mg MIRFULAN WUND HEILSALBE
Canespor 1x denně 1X15GM 1% EXCILOR LIQUIDO NIGERSAN D 5 20 Stk
Cicatridina 10x2 гр. Exoderil drm.sol. 1x20ml PSORADEXAN forte Creme
CLABIN plus Loesung 15 мл FRAMYKOIN 250IU/G+5,2MG SALVYSAT PLUS BÜRGER 90 Шт
CURACNÉ 10 MG MĚKKÁ TOBOLKA INFECTODELL 2 мл TERBISIL 10 mg 15 g
In some cases, in the absence of clinical effect from conservative treatment, surgical intervention or the connection of narrow specialists is indicated. Most often, the treatment of skin diseases is complex and combines several different methods at once. Today, with the help of the newest diagnostic and treatment methods, dermatology makes it possible to cure such diseases, which until quite recently were considered incurable.
Skin diseases are among the most common human diseases, and with each or another of their manifestations in their lives, almost everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 20% of the world's population suffers from skin diseases.
Many dermatoses have a chronic recurrent course and are difficult to treat. The most common skin diseases are dermatitis of various origins, eczema, fungal diseases, acne, skin warts, herpes simplex, psoriasis, skin cancer.
Modern dermatology pays much attention to the restoration of skin health, the study of the mechanisms of age and pathological changes in the skin, nails and hair, the treatment of oncological diseases, the search for new methods of diagnosis and treatment of dermatological diseases.
Folk methods for treating skin problems
Despite the various causes of these or other diseases, most of the recipes of traditional medicine give good results, often completely eliminating the problem. The main advantage is the fact that the composition of natural medicines includes mainly herbal collections and extracts, known for a wide range of actions, safe for the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which can not be said about many medical products.
The peculiarity of the treatment with herbs and folk and folk remedies is their multi-profile, thanks to astringent, antiseptic and wound-healing properties of plants, antimicrobial action against skin parasites and fungi, so they can be used for any skin diseases.
1. Cinquefoil helps with eczema, ulcers and damage to the mucous membranes. It is used as an ointment (100 gr of butter or Vaseline to cook with 10 grams of powder from the roots of the cottonwood) or lotions (20 g Roots per cup of boiling water).
1. In the same way, a 20% decoction of the oak bark is used, combined with a 30% alcohol infusion of propolis at a rate of 2 tbsp. for half a liter of broth. For a better effect, lotions and yarrow herbs (half of the volume of oak each) and several spoons of warmed honey bee are added to the lotions. Decoction before use is recommended for several hours to insist. In addition, affected areas can be irrigated, waiting for complete drying of the skin.
2. Mix in equal amounts 70% of propolis tincture and strained 10% extract from the walnut shell on wine vinegar. This mixture is wiped with eczema and dermatitis, if necessary (with ear damage to the skin) in the ear canals insert turuns for about 35 minutes.
3. Equal parts of the root of dandelion and burdock pour a tenfold volume of water, leave overnight, prepare the infusion in the morning. Drink an infusion of one-third of the glass for each meal.
4. In the ratio 1:10 of the herb to the water, decoctions are prepared from the following products:
• lures high;
• elderberry black;
• Orchisia spotted;
• corn stigmas;
• mixtures of pine and birch buds;
• lemon balm;
• dried birch leaves;
Leaves of blackberry;
• St. John's wort;
• Highlander of the bird;
• flax seeds;
Cones of hops;
• licorice root;
• leaves of raspberry and black currant;
• sweet clover;
• leaves, flowers and fruits of the viburnum;
Broths boil no more than 15 minutes, then insist for half an hour. They can be used as teas (before meals) or used as compresses and lotions (up to 5-6 times a day).
Virtually all skin diseases are universal oil of sea buckthorn fruit (oil is bred in a fat basis in the ratio 1:19), fir, linseed, tea tree (1:50), lavender, juniper, caraway (1: 100). They miss the affected areas of the body, waiting for maximum absorption, the remains are carefully removed with a paper napkin.
Powders from flax seeds and beans have a good wound-healing effect on skin lesions and eczema. They are sprinkled from above.
Juices from the viburnum, nettle, cucumber, parsley, dandelion, celery cleans the skin thoroughly with small rashes and blackheads.
Ointments from dandelion roots with honey (1: 2), raspberry leaves on any fatty basis (1: 4), calendula flowers on vaseline (1: 5), celery on melted butter (1: 1), honey and rye flour (1 : 1), sage on a baby cream (1: 8), fir oil on lanolin (2: 3), rhizomes of elecampane and pork fat (1: 5) have high wound healing and antimicrobial properties and are used for eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis and many others. diseases. They are applied to the affected areas of the body, top covered with a clean linen bandage, leave for 15-20 minutes. Apply up to 3-4 times a day.
Good help for multiple skin diseases and various herbal baths (250-300 gr.dry herbs on the bath):
• with celandine;
• barley malt;
• an alteum;
• fir oil and salicylic acid;
• Oak bark.
The duration of such a bath is 30-40 minutes.
Despite the fact that skin diseases in most cases appear outside, the cause of their appearance is often hidden inside. A weakened immune system, a violation of the natural functions of the liver, kidneys and gallbladder, the presence of extraneous microflora in the intestine - all this can be factors directly related to the skin condition. Therefore, comprehensive measures are very useful.
Folk remedies for strengthening immunity
In order to help the body overcome the ailment it is enough to include in the diet some kinds of products, special decoctions and herbal teas. Various fees can be bought at the pharmacy, vitamin infusions - cook at home. In addition to the fact that such herbal therapy contributes to the recovery of forces, the normalization of metabolic processes, many of the herbs still have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, eliminating insomnia and excessive nervousness.
As a source of vitamins (C, E, P, K) and antioxidants, the rose hips proved to be excellent. They need to be washed, cut each berry into several pieces and covered in a thermos, pour boiling water and leave for the night. In the morning, drain and drink during the day. It is allowed to add honey, but never sugar. You can store the drink in the refrigerator, but it's better to use freshly prepared ones - then the benefits of the vitamins contained in it are much higher.
A storehouse of vitamins and nutrients stores in itself and berries of cranberry marsh. Of these, you can squeeze the juice (in its pure form it is quite sour and must be diluted with water), cook compote (with a minimum amount of sugar) or make fruit.
A good immunomodulating effect on the organism is the berries of ashberry, black currant and sea-buckthorn (also sea buckthorn oil).
Nuts with high nutritional value (walnut or cedar) should be included in the diet. Nuts can be insisted on vodka and take as tinctures, it is allowed to rub them with honey.
It is also recommended to pay attention to the presence on the table of honey, onions, garlic, carrots, radishes, lemons, dried fruits, spinach, celery and basil.
An excellent remedy for improving immunity, proven, are various vitamin blends.
Raisins, dried apricots, prunes, lemons, walnuts and honey take in equal quantities, pass through a meat grinder and transfer to a jar. Take one tablespoon several times a day.
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